Ancient Texts

Epic of Gilgames – Tablet XI – non-biblical account of the Great Flood (1100 BC)

    The Epic of Gilgameš is one of the most famous texts from ancient Babylonia. It tells the story of a king who is trying to find immortality, and meets Ut-napištim, who has survived the Great Flood and has found what Gilgameš is looking for. In the following text,…
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Ancient Texts

The Epic of Atraḥasis – a non-biblical account of the Great Flood (1700 BC)

The Epic of Atraḥasis is the fullest Mesopotamian account of the Great Flood, with Atraḥasis in the role of Noah. It was written in the seventeenth century BCE. Translation Complaints of the Lower Gods When the gods were man they did forced labor, they bore drudgery. Great indeed was the…
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Ancient Texts

Account of Nebuchadnezzar II from Berossus (605 BC)

Berossus' own account (in Babylonian History) is lost, but it was summarized by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in his Against Apion.  One such account is the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II (562 BC – 605 BC).   Berossus at length comes down to Nabopolassar, who was king of Babylon and…
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Ancient Texts

Berossus story of the creation of the world and mankind (Enuma eiis)

  Berossus' own account (Babylonian History) is lost, but it was summarized in an Armenian translation of the Chronicon by the Christian author Eusebius. Below is its description of the creation of the world and mankind based on the epic Enûma êliš, and includes the story of Oannes, who taught…
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Ezekiel

Ezekiel’s first vision – four living creatures accompany a prophetic message from God (Ezekiel 1:1 – 1:28)

When Ezekiel was 30 years old, in the late spring or summer of the year, he was living among the exiles by the Kebar River in the land of the Babylonians. It was the fifth year of the exile of King Jehoiachin when the word of God came to Ezekiel.…
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