Misc Ancient Texts

The Gospel of Judas

Introduction Note: The following is a historical text and not a canonical book of the Christian Bible. The Gospel of Judas is a non-canonical Gnostic gospel. The content consists of purported conversations between Jesus and Judas Iscariot. Given that it includes late 2nd-century theology, it is widely thought to have been composed in the 2nd century (prior

The complete history of Bible translations – how the Word was delivered from God to our modern-day bibles

The goal of Bible translators is to render the biblical texts from their original language, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, into a “receptor language” while preserving as much of the original meaning as possible. Translators use ancient manuscripts and earlier bible translations to accomplish their goal. Today the Bible has been translated into more than 500

Which Bible translation is the most accurate? How bible translators interpreted and converted ancient text to modern-day languages.

NEW YORK - OCTOBER 27: Dead Sea Scrolls "Life And Faith In Biblical Times" at the Discovery Times Square as displayed by Running Subway Productions October 26th, 2011 in New York City. (Matthew Peyton) To understand biblical scripture, it is up to the reader to apply prior knowledge and common sense when reading

The collected writings of T. Justin Martyr – first century philosopher and early Christian Apologist (part 1 of 2)

Introduction to Justin Martyr Justin Martyr, also known as Saint Justin, was an early Christian apologist.  Originally a professional philosopher, Justin converted to Christianity about 130 AD after witnessing Christians die for their faith.  He learned about Christianity from “an old Christian man” who told him of a “true philosophy” to live life by.  After Old

The collected writings of T. Justin Martyr – first century philosopher and early Christian Apologist (part 2 of 2)

Introduction to Justin Martyr Justin Martyr, also known as Saint Justin, was an early Christian apologist.  Originally a professional philosopher, Justin converted to Christianity about 130 AD after witnessing Christians die for their faith.  He learned about Christianity from “an old Christian man” who told him of a “true philosophy” to live life by.  After Old

The Apocalypse of Thomas (ancient apocryphal texts)

Introduction The Apocalypse of Thomas is a work from the New Testament apocrypha, apparently composed originally in Greek. It is the inspiration for the popular medieval millennial list Fifteen Signs before Doomsday. The text was written in Greek between the second and the fourth century. There are two recensions of the text, the second one of which containing an interpolation apparently written in the fifth century.

Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles – Mesopotamian Chronicles (ABC)

ABC Translation of Column IV [iv.1] The third year [of Esarhaddon]:[x] [...]-ahhe-šullim, the governor of Nippur, and [iv.2] Šamaš-ibni, the Dakkurean, were transported to Assyria and executed in Assyria.   [iv.3] The fourth year:[x] Sidon was captured and sacked. [iv.4] In that same year: the major-domo conscripted troops in Akkad.   [iv.5] The fifth year:[x] On the second day of the month Tašrîtu

Mesopotamian Chronicles – Assyrian chronicle describes war of King Assur-res-isi against Babylonian king Ninurta-nadin-sumi

The Chronicle of Aššur-reš-iši is a fragment of an Assyrian chronicle; the tablet was found in Aššur. It describes the war of king Aššur-reš-iši (r.1133-1115) against the Babylonian king Ninurta-nadin-šumi (r.1132-1126). Translation [1'] [...] ... against them ... their ... an alliance ... the merchants ... he inflicted a defeat on them.   [2'] ... conquest. Aššur-reš-iši, king of Assyria,

The Epic of Atrahasis – a non-biblical account of the Great Flood (1600 BC)

  The Epic of Atrahasis is the fullest Mesopotamian account of the Great Flood. The text is known from several versions: two written by Assyrian scribes (one in the Assyrian, one in the Babylonian dialect), the third one (on three tablets) was written during the reign of king Ammi-saduqa of Babylonia (c.1647-c.1626 BCE). Atrahasis' Dream Explained [i.b35] Enlil

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