The Book of Nehemiah was originally combined with the book of Ezra to form Ezra-Nehemiah.  It was split into two books during the early centuries of Christianity.  Told in the form of a first-person memoir, it tells the story of the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a Jew who is a high official in the Persian court.  The events described take place in 500 BC.  Authorship is traditionally ascribed to Ezra however some feel the true author was Nehemiah himself writing under an assumed name.  It may have originally be distributed as a standalone work of literature.