Traditional Jewish Talmud - cover

The Babylonian Talmud

Translated by MICHAEL L. RODKINSON

Section Moed (Festivals)

Tracts Pesachim (Passover), Yomah (Day of Atonement) and Hagiga (Holocaust) Book 3: Volumes V. and VI.

1918 Tract Pesachim (Passover)

Title Page Explanatory Remarks Dedication

Contents

Synopsis of Subjects

Chapter I. Concerning the Removal of Leaven from the House

Chapter II: Time for Eating Unleavened Bread and Material Used for Making Unleavened Bread and Bitter Herbs

Chapter III: Regulations Concerning Articles Which Cause Transgression of the Law Prohibiting Leaven to be Seen or Found in the House of an Israelite.

Chapter IV: Regulations Concerning Work Which May and Must not be Performed on the Day Before Passover

Chapter V: Regulations Concerning the Sacrifice of the Paschal Lamb

Chapter VI: Regulations Concerning Acts Which Supersede the Due Observance of the Sabbath; The Paschal Offering; What if One Sacrifice is Confounded with Another

Chapter VII: Roasting the Paschal Lamb; If the Paschal Lamb Becomes Defiled; Parts of Lamb Eaten

Chapter VIII: Those Obligated to Eat the Paschal Sacrifice; Where It May Be Eaten; Companies Appointed to Eat It; Difference Between First and Second Passover

Chapter IX: The Second Passover; Passover during Exodus; Mixed Paschal Sacrifices Chapter X: The Meal on the Eve of Passover and the Four Cups of Wine

Appendix A Appendix B

Tract Yomah (Day of Atonement)

Title Page Explanatory Remarks

Dedications Contents

Introduction to Tract Yomah Synopsis of Subjects, Tract Yomah

Chapter I: The Preparations of the High Priest

Chapter II: The Lots Priests Drew, Which Priests Should go to the Altar, How Many Priests Needed for Each Sacrifice

Chapter III: Time of the Daily Offering; Entry of a Layman into the Temple Court; Order of High-Priests’ Service on Day of Atonement

Chapter IV: The Two Goats

Chapter V: Remaining Services of the High-Priest

Chapter VI: Regulations Concerning the He-Goats of the Day of Atonement And the Sending to the Desert, And the Confession Thereat.

Chapter VII: The Passages Read by the High-Priest and his Garments

Chapter VIII: Regulations Concerning Fasting on the Day of Atonement; What May Be Done Thereon, And What May Not Be Done.

Appendix

Tract Hagiga (Holocaust)

Contents

Synopsis of Subjects

Chapter I: Regulations Concerning the Holocaust, and the Appointed Time for the Peace- Offering

Chapter II: Regulations Concerning Public Lectures: Which Are And Which Are Not Allowed. Chapter III: In What Cases Sacred Things Are More Rigorous Than Heave-Offerings, And Vice Versa

Index Next

p. i

NEW EDITION

OF THE

BABYLONIAN TALMUD

Original Text, Edited, Corrected, Formulated and Translated into English

BY

MICHAEL L. RODKINSON SECTION MOED (FESTIVALS) TRACT PESACHIM (PASSOVER)

Volume V.

BOSTON

THE TALMUD SOCIETY

[1918]

Scanned at sacred-texts.com, September, 2002. J.B. Hare, Redactor.

Next: Explanatory Remarks

p. ii

EXPLANATORY REMARKS.

In our translation we adopted these principles:

Tenan of the original–We have learned in a Mishna; Tania–We have, learned in a Boraitha;

Itemar–It was taught.

Questions are indicated by the interrogation point, and are immediately followed by the answers, without being so marked.

When in the original there occur two statements separated by the phrase, Lishna achrena or

Waïbayith Aema or Ikha d’amri (literally, “otherwise interpreted”), we translate only the second.

As the pages of the original are indicated in our new Hebrew edition, it is not deemed necessary to mark them in the English edition, this being only a translation from the latter.

Words or passages enclosed in round parentheses () denote the explanation rendered by Rashi to the foregoing sentence or word. Square parentheses [] contained commentaries by authorities of the last period of construction of the Gemara.

COPYRIGHT, 1903, BY MICHAEL L. RODKINSON. COPYRIGHT 1916, BY

NEW TALMUD PUBLISHING SOCIETY

Next: Dedication

p. iv

TO THE HONORABLE ISIDOR STRAUS

IN RECOGNITION OF HIS MANY PHILANTHROPIC DEEDS AND VALUABLE SERVICES IN THE CAUSE OF LITERATURE.

MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY THE EDITOR

MICHAEL L. RODKINSON.

NEW YORK, APRIL THE 6TH, 1898, THE EVE OF PASSOVER.

Next: Contents

Index Previous Next

p. v

CONTENTS.

PAGE

SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS OF VOLUME V.–TRACT PESACHIM, vii

CHAPTER I.

REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE REMOVAL OF LEAVEN FROM THE HOUSE ON THE EVE OF PASSOVER AND THE 1

EXACT TIME WHEN THIS MUST BE ACCOMPLISHED,

CHAPTER II.

REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TIME FOR EATING LEAVENED BREAD ON THE EVE OF PASSOVER. MATERIAL 30

USED FOR MAKING UNLEAVENED BREAD AND BITTER HERBS,

CHAPTER III.

REGULATIONS CONCERNING ARTICLES WHICH CAUSE TRANSGRESSION OF THE LAW PROHIBITING LEAVEN TO BE 68 SEEN OR FOUND IN THE HOUSE OF AN ISRAELITE,

CHAPTER IV.

REGULATIONS CONCERNING WORK WHICH MAY AND SUCH AS MUST NOT BE PERFORMED ON THE DAY 84

PRECEDING THE FESTIVAL OF PASSOVER,

CHAPTER V.

REGULATION’S CONCERNING THE SACRIFICE OF THE PASCHAL LAMB, 106

CHAPTER VI.

REGULATIONS CONCERNING ACTS WHICH SUPERSEDE THE DUE OBSERVANCE OF THE SABBATH. THE SACRIFICE OF THE PASCHAL OFFERING. WHAT IS TO BE DONE IF ONE SACRIFICE IS CONFOUNDED WITH ANOTHER,

125

p. vi

CHAPTER VII.

PAGE

REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE ROASTING OF THE PASCHAL LAMB. THE MANNER OF PROCEDURE IF THE PASCHAL LAMB BECOME DEFILED. WHICH PARTS OF THE LAME ARE EATEN,

143

CHAPTER VIII.

REGULATIONS CONCERNING THOSE OBLIGATED TO EAT THE PASCHAL SACRIFICE. WHERE IT MAY BE EATEN. COMPANIES APPOINTED TO EAT IT, AND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND PASSOVER,

173

CHAPTER IX.

REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE SECOND PASSOVER. THE PASSOVER AT THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT. CONCERNING CASES WHERE THE PASCHAL SACRIFICE HAD BECOME MIXED,

191

CHAPTER X.

REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE MEAL ON THE EVE OF PASSOVER AND THE FOUR CUPS OF WINE TO BE DRUNK WITH THE MEAL,

210

APPENDIX.

EXPLANATORY OF THE FIRST MISHNA, PAGE 1, 253

SUPPLEMENTARY TO SECOND NOTE, PAGE 66, 263

Next: Synopsis of Subjects

p. vii

SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS

OF

VOLUME V.–TRACT PESACHIM. 1

CHAPTER I.

MISHNA I. What is meant by Or? The explanation of the phrase(Job xiv. 14), “with the earliest light.” At no time should a man allow an ill sounding word to escape from his mouth. What the two disciples of Rabh and R. Johanan b. Zakkai said: Go and report it to the horses. If a house was rented and it is not known whether the leavened bread had been searched for. If a man leave his house and intend to return on the Pass over. Two things are without the province of man. If musty bread was found in a chest. By what light search for leavened bread must be made.

Whether wine-cellars have to be searched, 1-14

MISHNAS II., III., IV., V. If a man leaves ten pieces of bread and finds nine, or nine heaps of Matzoth, and one heap of Chometz, and finds ten. When search for Chometz must be made. The reason why Chometz must be removed on the fourteenth of Nissan. If a Gentile came into the court of an Israelite on Passover. Of the Gentile who stored a basketful of Chometz with Johanan Hakuka. The two thanksgiving-offering cakes laid on the benches. What R. Hanina the Sagan of the priests said. If there were doubtful beverages, 14-29

CHAPTER II.

MISHNA I. What one may do as long as it is lawful to eat unleavened bread. Why the Mishna enumerates domestic and wild animals. Whence we know that no benefit may be derived from leaven on Passover. Wherever it is written, “Ye shall not eat,” the object in question must not even be used. By means of what a man is permitted to cure himself when in danger. A man must rather permit himself to be slain than to slay another. According to whom the Halakha prevails when Rabbi differs with an individual or tile Majority, 30-41

p. viii

MISHNAS II., III., IV., V., VI. Concerning leaven belonging to a Gentile. Whether a man may eat the leaven of a Gentile. Whether earthenware pots used during the year must be destroyed before Passover. About an oven greased with fat immediately after it had been heated. If a Gentile lent money to an Israelite, taking as security leavened articles, and vice versa. About leaven covered by ruins. About leavened heave-offering. Whether leavened articles have a pecuniary value on Passover. With which articles a person acquits himself of the duty of eating unleavened bread on Passover. Whether one can acquit himself of the duty with bread kneaded

with wine, oil, or honey. What is meant by bread of affliction. Why it is not allowed to prepare figured cakes on Passover, 41-59

MISHNAS VII. to IX. The duty of eating bitter herbs on the Passover. Whether lettuce is to be preferred to other bitter herbs. About soaking bran on Passover to feed fowls. Where the mother of Mar b. Rabhina bought her wheat for her son. Whether it is lawful to put flour into sauce or mustard. Whether it is lawful to cook the paschal lamb after it has been roasted. With which kind of water may a woman knead the dough, 59-67

CHAPTER III.

MISHNAS I. to V. Whether Babylonian Kuthach, Median beer, etc., may be used on Passover. About the paste used by scribes. Whether women are held to be equal to men in regard to prohibitory laws. About dough in the holes or crevices of a kneading-trough. About dull dough. How the first of the dough due to the priest can be separated on the Passover. About the three women who may knead dough for Passover, 68-77

MISHNAS VI., VII., VIII. About dough which commences to become leavened. If the fourteenth of Nissan fall on the Sabbath, what must be done. When one going to fulfil a religious duty on the eve of Passover recollects that he has Chometz left at home. In which case may a scholar enjoy his meal. For what meritorious purpose a man should sell all his possessions. What R. Aqiba said about a scholar when he was ignorant. What sentiment a man who occupies himself with study of the law evokes in the heart of a common person. Why it is written that the Lord will be one and His name will be one on that day, and not at present, 77-83

CHAPTER IV.

MISHNAS I., II., III., IV. How a man should conduct himself who removes from a place where a thing is allowed to a place where it is not allowed, or vice versa. If one depends on the earnings of his wife. Those who write scrolls, etc., or sell them, etc., do not perceive any blessing for their work. What Rabba bar bar Hana said to his son. What R. Johanan b. Elazar related. May we, being versed in the calendar, do work on the second day of a festival in exile? Whether roasted meat may be eaten on the night of Passover. What justified Hananiah, Mishaël, and Azariah to permit themselves to be thrown into the fiery furnace. When the fire of Gehenna was created. In what respect every man should consider himself a scholar. What it is permitted to do on the eve and intermediate days of a festival. What are the six things done by the inhabitants of Jericho and King Hezekiah, and which met with the rabbis’ approval. Four shouts

p. ix

sent up in the court of the Temple. What happened to Issachar, the man of the village of Barkai, 84-105

CHAPTER V.

MISHNAS I., II., III., IV., V. The time of offering the paschal lamb. If the Passover-sacrifice

had not been slaughtered for its purpose. If the paschal lamb was slaughtered for those who will not partake thereof The inhabitants of what places must not be taught the contents of the book of ancestry. Since the book of ancestry was concealed, the power of our sages was on the wane, etc. If a man offers the Passover-sacrifice while still having leaven in his possession. For how many divisions the paschal lamb was offered, etc., 106-124

CHAPTER VI.

MISHNA I. ‘Which acts necessary for the sacrifice of the paschal offering supersede Sabbath. How Hiellel the Elder became Nassi, and what happened subsequently. What befalls him who is arrogant, and him who becomes angry. In the future the righteous would have the power to arouse the dead. How pleasing the fulfilment of a religious duty at its proper time was to our ancestors, 125-133

MISHNAS II., III. Under what circumstances it is allowed to bring a festal offering in addition to the paschal sacrifice. What is meant by Abhin Thekla? (See note.) If a person brought a paschal sacrifice on the Sabbath not for its proper purpose. What R. Hyya of Abel Arab declared, 133-142

CHAPTER VII.

MISHNAS I., II., III., IV., V. How the paschal lamb should be roasted. About diluted vinegar, whether it may be used. If any part of the roasted lamb had touched the earthenware oven on which it was roasted. The five kinds of sacrifices that may be brought by those who are in a state of ritual uncleanness. If the flesh of the paschal sacrifice has become ritually defiled. If the whole or the greater part of the congregation had become defiled. If one half of the congregation be clean, and the other half unclean, 143-172

MISHNAS VI., VII., VIII., IX., X. For what defilements the golden plate of the high-priest atones. When, and with which wood, must the Iamb be burned, if defiled. If a slaughtered Passover-sacrifice had been carried beyond the walls of Jerusalem. When the bones, sinews, etc., must be burned. Which part of the paschal kid or lamb may be eaten, 156-165

MISHNAS XI., XII., XIII. What penalty is due for breaking any bones of the clean paschal lamb. If a part of a member of the paschal sacrifice protrude beyond the Temple, etc. If two companies eat their paschal sacrifice in one room, and if there is among them a bride, what they and she must do. What was said and done when R. Ishmael b. R. Jose happened to be a guest of

R. Simeon b. R. Jose b. Lakunia, 165-172

CHAPTER VIII.

MISHNAS I., II., III., IV., V. If two paschal lambs were slaughtered for a lying-in woman by her relatives. The Hagadic explanation of the verses

p. x

in Solomon’s Song viii. 8, and viii. 10, etc. The legend of what the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Prophet Hosea, what he answered Him, and what befell subsequently. Woe is to a dominion that overwhelms its own master. For what purpose Israel was sent into exile. The reason why the Romans did not destroy all Israelites. Why Israel was exiled to Babylon. The day on which all the children of Israel will be recalled from exile will be as great as that on which the world was created. If a person order his slave to go and slaughter for him the paschal sacrifice. If a man say to his sons, I slaughter the paschal sacrifice for whichever one of you shall arrive first in Jerusalem. The size of an olive of the paschal lamb suffices for those who partake of it. If a person had appointed others to partake with him of his share, 173-185

MISHNAS VI., VII., VIII., IX. Whether one whose seventh day of sprinkling fall on the eve of Passover may partake of the paschal lamb. A mourner who has lost a relative on the 14th of Nissan. A prisoner who has the assurance of a release. Whether the paschal sacrifice must be slaughtered for a single individual. Whether a mourner for a near relative, not yet interred, may eat of the paschal sacrifice. When a Gentile proselyte may partake of it, 185-190

CHAPTER IX.

MISHNAS I., II., III. Who must observe the second Passover. Must a woman bring a second Passover-offering? Concerning neglecting to sacrifice. What must be considered a distant journey? How much the entire world measures, What the disciples of Elijah taught. The difference between the sages of Israel and of the Gentiles. The difference between the first and second Passover. Concerning the Hallel at the slaughtering of sacrifices, 191-201

MISHNAS IV., V., VI., VII., VIII., IX. When the paschal sacrifice was brought in a state of defilement. Was it prohibited at the Egyptian Passover to eat leaven on that one night? What R. Jehoshua heard from his teachers and could not explain, R. Aqiba explained. When the animal must be left to graze. If a paschal sacrifice had become mixed with other animals. If a company has lost their paschal sacrifice. When a paschal offering of two individuals has become mixed, 201-209

CHAPTER X.

MISHNA I. When and what must be eaten on the eve of Passover, and how many cups of wine must be partaken during the night. R. Simeon b. Gamaliel, R. Jehudah, R. Jose were partaking a meal on the eve of Sabbath in the city of Achu. Once Rabba b. R. Huna came to the house of the Exilarch. Whether one who has heard the Kiddush in the synagogue must repeat it at home. If Sabbath had set during the course of a meal at which a company were sitting. Concerning the order of the benedictions. Concerning the holiday prayers, what must be said. What should be the conclusion of the Habdalah. How R. Itz’hak sent his son to Ula, and his answer. Whether the honor of the Sabbath is more important than that of the eve preceding it. The eight things about the Habdalah prayer. How R. Ashi recited the

p. xi

great Kiddush when he came to Mehuzza. If one had thoughtlessly eaten before Kiddush or Habdalah, may he say these prayers? May the Kiddush be made over beer? What is meant by

the time of Min’hah, and when King Agrippa usually took his meal. Whether women must also drink the four cups. What taste and color must the wine have. It is the duty of every man to cause his household and his children to rejoice on a festival. About the even numbers (see note,

p. 229). The seven things R. Aqiba commanded his son R. Jehoshua. The five things R. Aqiba, while in prison, commanded R. Simeon b. Jochai. The four things our holy Rabbi commanded his children. The three things R. Jose b. R. Jehudah commanded Rabbi. Why a man should not go out alone at night. What Rabbi said to Aibo, his son. The three things R. Jehoshua b. Levi said in the name of the great men of Jerusalem. Three kinds of men shall inherit the world to come. How R. Hanina and R. Oshiya made shoes for the prostitutes. The three kinds of men whom the Holy One, blessed be He, loves. The three kinds of men who do not live a life worth living. The three species who hate others of their own kind. The three kinds of beings who love others of their kind. Five things which Canaan commanded his children. Six things said of a horse, 210-236

MISHNAS II., III., IV., V. When the first cup is poured out. Herbs and vegetables are to be brought. The benediction of the bitter herbs. Why the bitter herbs should not be placed between unleavened cakes. If a man swallowed unleavened bread. When the table on which the food is served should be removed. What serves as a remembrance of the apple-trees. A second cup of wine is poured out. What Rabbon Gamaliel used to say, “Hallelujah.” How far is the Hallel to be said? Why a blind man is exempt from the recital of the Haggada. With ten different expressions of praise the entire Book of Psalms was composed. Who said the Hallel? What the Karaites add to these verses, Is Hallelujah the beginning or the end of the chapters? What Rabba discovered that the sages of Pumbaditha once proclaimed, 236-249

MISHNAS VI., VII., VIII. A third cup of wine is poured out. Why is this called the great Hallel? The laboriousness of a man’s earning his daily bread. Why the small Hallel must be recited at the Passover-meal. What occurred when Nebuchadnezzar threw Hananiah, Mishaël, and Azariah into the furnace. Who said: “The truth of the Lord endureth for ever”? What R. Ishmael sent to Rabbi in the name of his father. Who will get the cup of benediction. Is it unlawful to conclude the eating of the paschal sacrifice with a dessert? Is it obligatory to eat Matzoth during all the seven days? If any of the company fall asleep during the meal. About the blessing of the paschal and festal offerings. R. Simlai at the redemption of a first-born son, 249-

259

APPENDIX A. Explanatory of the first Mishna. APPENDIX B. Supplementary to the second note, p. 66, 1 250-264

Footnotes

vii:1 See introduction to the synopsis in Tract Sabbath, Vol. I., p. ix.

xi:1 We were told that some readers made reference to the synopsis instead of to the text. We have therefore, in the synopsis of this tract, omitted all conclusions. We will do so, likewise, in the future.

Next: Chapter I. Concerning the Removal of Leaven from the House