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Egyptian gods and hieroglyphics

Ancient Egyptians worshipped more than 2,000 gods, deities they believed granted favor to their nation. They appeared in virtually every aspect of ancient Egyptian culture. Here is a complete list of Egyptian gods worshipped by the ancient Egyptians.

A

A’ah – An early moon god who evolved into Iah (also known as Yah) and, eventually, Khonsu.

Aken – Ferried souls across Lily Lake to the Field of Reeds in the afterlife. Slept until needed by Hraf-Hef, the Divine Ferryman. His name only appears in the Book of the Dead.

Aker – The guardian of the eastern and western horizons of the afterlife. Protected the sun barge of Ra as it entered and left the underworld.

Am-Heh – God in the underworld who lived in a lake of fire.

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Amenet (Amentet) – Goddess who welcomed the dead to the afterlife. Was the consort of the Divine Ferryman. She lived in a tree near the gates of the underworld. Daughter of Hathor and Horus.

Ammit (Ammut) – Goddess depicted with the head of a crocodile, torso of a leopard, and hindquarters of a hippo. She sat beneath the scales of justice in the Hall of Truth in the afterlife and devoured the hearts of those souls which were not justified by Osiris.

Egyptian god Amon in Ram formAmun (Amon or Amun-Ra) – God of the sun and air. Was considered the most powerful god in Egypt.

Amunhotep (Amenhotep), Son of Hapu – God of healing and wisdom. Along with Hardedef and Imhotep, one of the few human beings deified by the Egyptians. He was the royal architect of Amunhotep III (1386-1353 BCE). Considered so wise that, after death, he became deified.

Amunet – Female counterpart of Amun, member of the Ogdoad.

Anat – Goddess of fertility, sexuality, love, and war. Often equated with Aphrodite of Greece, Astarte of Phoenicia, Inanna of Mesopotamia, and Sauska of the Hittites.

Anta – An aspect of the Mother Goddess Mut.

Andjety – God of fertility. Was eventually was absorbed by Osiris.

Anhur (Han-her) – Known as Onuris by the Greeks. God of war and patron of the Egyptian army. See Onuris.

Anqet (Anukit or Anuket) – Goddess of fertility and the cataract of the Nile River at Aswan.

Anti – Hawk god of Upper Egypt sometimes associated with Anat.

Anubis – God of the dead associated with embalming. Son of Nephthys and Osiris, father of Qebhet. Depicted as a man with the head of a dog or jackal carrying a staff. Guided the souls of the dead to the Hall of Truth and was part of the ritual of the Weighing of the Heart of the Soul in the afterlife.

Anuke – War goddess, sometimes consort of Anhur, god of war. Depicted in battle dress with bow and arrow.

Apedemak – War god depicted as a lion, originally thought to be from Nubia.

Apep (Apophis) – Celestial serpent that assaulted the sun barge of Ra every night as it made its way through the underworld toward the dawn. Gods and the justified dead would help Ra fend the serpent off.

Apis – Divine Bull worshipped as an incarnation of the god Ptah. The Apis Cult was one of the most important and long-lived in the history of Egyptian culture.

Arensnuphis – Companion to the goddess Isis and worshipped primarily at at Philae. Depicted as a lion with a feathered headdress. Originally from Nubia.

Asclepius (Aesculapius) – God of healing. Symbol was a staff with a serpent entwined about it, associated in the modern day with healing and the medical profession, known as the Rod of Asclepius.

Ash (As) – God of the Libyan desert, a kindly deity who provided the oasis for travelers.

Astarte – Phoenician goddess of fertility and sexuality.

Aten – Sun deity who was elevated by pharaoh Akhenaten to the position of sole god, creator of the universe.

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Atum (Ra) – The sun god, supreme lord of the gods, creator of the universe and human beings.

Auf (Efu-Ra) – An aspect of Atum (Ra).

B

Ba’al – Storm god.

Ba’alat Gebal – Goddess of the city of Byblos, a protector deity, incorporated into Egyptian worship through her association with papyrus.

Babi (Baba) – Virility god depicted as a baboon and symbolizing male sexuality.

Banebdjedet – Fertility/virility god depicted as a man with a ram’s head.

Ba-Pef – God of terror. Lived in the House of Woe in the afterlife. Was never worshipped but a Cult of Ba-Pef existed to help appease the god and protect the king.

Bastet (Bast) – Beautiful goddess of cats, women’s secrets, childbirth, fertility, and protector of the home from evil or misfortune. She was the daughter of Ra and closely associated with Hathor. Bastet was one of the most popular deities of ancient Egypt. Depicted as a cat or a woman with a cat’s head.

Bat – Early cow goddess associated with fertility and success. She is one of the oldest Egyptian goddesses dating from the early Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE). Depicted as a cow or a woman with cow ears and horns.

Bennu – Divine bird of creation and inspiration for the Greek Phoenix. Present at the dawn of creation as an aspect of Atum (Ra) which flew over the primordial waters and woke creation with its cry.

Bes (Aha or Bisu) – God of childbirth, fertility, sexuality, humor, and war, popularly known as the Dwarf god. One of the most popular gods in Egyptian history. Protected women and children, fended off evil, and fought for divine order and justice.

Beset – Female aspect of Bes invoked in ceremonial magic. Bes also fended off dark magic, ghosts, spirits, and demons. His feminine aspect was called on to combat these forces.

Buchis – Aspect of the Ka of the god Montu. Depicted as a bull running.

C

Cavern Deities – Group of nameless gods who lived in caverns in the underworld and punished the wicked. Depicted as serpents. People of Egypt would leave bowls of offerings by caves for them.

Celestial Ferryman (Hraf-haf) – Boatman who ferried the souls of the justified dead across Lily Lake to the shores of paradise. Was rude and unpleasant but had to be respected in order to reach paradise. Depicted as a man in a boat with his head facing behind him.

D

Dedun – Protector god of resources.

Denwen – Serpent deity that held power over fire. Was strong enough to destroy the gods.

Duamutef – One of the Four Sons of Horus. Presided over the east. Depicted as a jackal.

E

Ennead – The nine gods worshipped at Heliopolis: Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and Set. Together they were known as The Great Ennead.

F

Fetket – Butler of the sun god Ra who served him his drinks, patron god of bartenders.

Field of Offerings – A region of the afterlife devoted to Osiris, located to the west.

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Field of Reeds – Egyptian paradise in the afterlife which the soul was admitted to after passing successfully through judgment and being justified by Osiris.

Forty-Two Judges – The Forty-two deities who presided with Osiris, Thoth, and Anubis over the judgment of the soul in the afterlife. The Forty-Two Judges advised Osiris on whether a deceased’s confession should be accepted.

Four Sons of Horus – Four deities, Duamutef, Hapy, Imset, and Qebehsenuef, who watched over the viscera or the dead. Each had his own cardinal point to guard, his own internal organ to protect, and was watched over by a specific goddess.

G

Geb – God of the earth and growing things.Son of Shu and Tefnut, husband of Nut, the sky.

Gengen Wer – Present at the dawn of creation and guarded (or laid) the celestial egg containing the life force.

H

Ha – Protector God of the desert to the west of Egypt. Son of the god Iaaw. Depicted as a strong young man with the sign of the desert over his head.

Hapi – Fertility god, god of the Nile silt and associated with the inundation which caused the river to overflow its banks and deposit the rich earth which the farmers relied on for their crops. Depicted as a man with large breasts and belly signifying fertility and success.

Hapy – Also known as Hapi, a protector god, one of the Four Sons of Horus who protected the canopic jar holding the lungs. Presided over the north. Depicted as a baboon.

Hardedef – Son of King Khufu who wrote a book known as Instruction in Wisdom. The work was so brilliant it was considered the work of a god and he was deified after death.

Haroeris – Greek name for the sky aspect of Horus the Elder.

Harpocrates – Greek and Roman name for Horus the Child, son of Osiris and Isis. Depicted as a young winged boy with his finger to his lips.

Hathor – One of the best known, most popular, and most important deities of ancient Egypt. She was the daughter of Ra and, in some stories, wife of Horus the Elder. Goddess of joy, inspiration, celebration, love, women, women’s health, childbirth, and drunkenness. In the afterlife she helped guide the souls of the dead toward paradise and was one of the deities aboard the sun barge of Ra. Depicted as a cow or a woman with a cow’s head.

Hathor-Nebet-Hetepet – Mother Goddess aspect of Hathor. Represented the hand, the active part, of the supreme god Atum (Ra).

Hatmehit (Hatmehyt) – Fish goddess worshipped in the Delta region of Mendes.

Haurun – Protector god associated with the Great Sphinx of Giza.

Hedetet – Goddess of scorpions and protectress against their venom.

Heh and Hauhet – God and goddess of infinity and eternity. Heh was depicted as a frog and Hauhet as a serpent.

Heqet (Heket) – Goddess of fertility and childbirth. Depicted as a frog or a woman with the head of a frog.

Heret-Kau – Protective goddess worshipped as a life-giving spirit who also protected the souls of the dead in the afterlife.

Heka – One of the oldest and most important gods in ancient Egypt. Patron god of magic and medicine but was also the primordial source of power in the universe. He existed before the gods and was present in the act of creation. Depicted as a man carrying a staff and knife. Magic was an integral part of medical practice in ancient Egypt, and so Heka became an important deity for doctors.

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Heryshaf – Fertility god. Depicted as a man with the head of a ram.

Heset – Goddess of food and drink associated with beer and enjoyment. Depicted as a cow with a tray of food on her horns and milk flowing freely from her udders.

Hetepes-Sekhus – Personification of the Eye or Ra, a cobra goddess in the afterlife that destroys the enemies of Osiris.

Egyptian god HorusHorus – Avian god who became one of the most important deities in ancient Egypt. Associated with the sun, sky, and power, Horus became linked with the king of Egypt as early as the First Dynasty.

Hu – God of the spoken word. Related to Sia and Heka. Sia represented the heart, Hu the tongue, and Heka their underlying force which gave them their power.

I

Iah (Yah) – God of the moon.

Iabet – Goddess of fertility and rebirth. Also known as “Cleanser of Ra” who bathed the sun before it appeared in the dawn sky.

Ihy – God of music and joy. Son of Hathor and Horus the Elder. Depicted as a child with a sistrum.

Imhotep – Vizier of king Djoser (c. 2670 BCE) who designed and built the Step Pyramid. Was a polymath expert in many fields of study. After his death, he was deified as a god of wisdom and medicine.

Imsety – Protector god who protected the canopic jar holding the liver. He presided over the south.

Ipy – Mother Goddess. Depicted as a hippopotamus or a combination of hippo, crocodile, human female, and lion, most often with a lion’s head, hippo’s body, human arms, lion feet.Referenced in Pyramid Texts as protecting and nourishing the king.

Ishtar – Goddess of love, sexuality, and war.

Egyptian god Horus IsisIsis – Most powerful and popular goddess in Egyptian history. Was associated with virtually every aspect of human life and, in time, became elevated to the position of supreme deity, “Mother of the Gods”, who cared for her fellow deities as she did for human beings. She is the second-born of the First Five Gods (Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus the Elder), sister-wife of Osiris, mother of Horus the Younger, and symbolically understood as the mother of every king. She cared for people in life and appeared to them after death to help guide them safely to paradise. The Cult of Isis was the strongest opponent of the new religion of Christianity between the 4th-6th centuries.

Isis-Eutheria – Greek version of Isis.

Iusaaset – Mother Goddess referred to as “Grandmother of the Gods” Depicted as a woman with the uraeus and solar disc on her head holding a scepter and the ankh, symbol of life

Iw – Creation goddess.

J

Judgement Deities – See Forty-Two Judges

Jupiter-Amun – Roman version of Zeus-Amun, king of the gods.

K

Kabechet (Kebehwet or Qebhet) – A celestial serpent deity that provides pure, cool water to the souls of the deceased as they awaited judgment in the Hall of Truth.

Kagemni – A vizier to the king Sneferu (c. 2613-2589 BCE) who wrote the wisdom text known as Instructions of Kagemni. He was deified after death and worshipped as a god of wisdom.

Kek and Kauket – Gods of obscurity and night, the god of the hours before dawn. Kauket, his feminine balance, was depicted as a woman with the head of a serpent.

Khentekhtai (Khente-Khtai) – Crocodile protective god.

Khentiamenti (Khentiamentiu) – Fertility god of Abydos.

Khenmu (Khnum) – God of Upper Egypt. Fashioned human beings from the clay of the Nile River and then held them high so the light of Ra could shine upon them and give them life. Depicted as a ram-headed god symbolizing virility and fertility. Formed a triad with the gods Anuket and Satis at Elephantine on the Egyptian border of Nubia.

Khepri – Aspect of Ra the sun god in his morning form. Depicted as a scarab beetle.

Kherty (Cherti) – Ram-headed god of the underworld who ferried the dead on their last journey into the afterlife.

Khonsu (Kons, Chonsu, Khensu, or Chons) – God of the moon. Depicted as a mummy holding the crook and flail with a uraeus and moon disc on his head.

L

Lady of the Acacia – Known as the goddess Iusaaset, “Grandmother of the Gods”.

Lady of the Sycamore – Known as Hathor.

Lake of Flowers (Lily Lake) – Body of water in the afterlife which the souls of the justified dead crossed to reach paradise in the Field of Reeds.

Lates-Fish – Nile perch sacred to the goddess Neith.

M

Maahes (Mahes, Mihos, or Mysis) – Solar god and protector of the innocent. Depicted as a lion-headed man carrying a long knife or a lion.

Ma’at – Goddess of truth, justice, and harmony. One of the most important deities in the Egyptian pantheon. Sets the stars in the sky and regulates the seasons. Depicted as a woman wearing a crown with an ostrich feather.

Mafdet (Mefdet) – Goddess of justice. Depicted as a woman with the head of a cat, cheetah, leopard, or lynx holding the rope and executioner’s blade.

Mandulis (Marul or Merwel) – Solar god. Depicted as a falcon wearing a horned headdress.

Mau – Divine cat, Ra personified.

Mehen – Serpent god who wrapped himself around Ra in the sun barge to protect him from Apep’s attacks.

Mehet-Weret – Sky goddess, the celestial cow goddess who rose from the primordial waters of chaos to give birth to the sun god Ra at the beginning of time.

Mehit (Meyht) – Moon goddess. Depicted as a reclining lioness.

Mekhit – Goddess of war. Depicted as a roaring lioness.

Menhit (Menhyt) – Solar god who represented the brow of the sun god Ra. Depicted as a reclining lioness.

Meretseger – Protector goddess in the form of a cobra.

Merit – Goddess of music.

Meskhenet – Goddess of childbirth. Depicted as a birthing brick with the head of a woman.

Mestjet – An aspect of the Eye of Ra.

Min – Fertility god who watched over travelers. Associated with the black fertile mud of the Egyptian Delta.

Mnevis (Mer-Wer or Nem-Wer) – The sacred bull of Heliopolis, an aspect of the sun god Ra.

Montu – Falcon god .

Mut – Mother goddess that guarded over people in life and the savior of souls trapped by demons in the afterlife.

N

Nebethetpet – Goddess personified as the hand of Atum.

Nefertum (Nefertem) – God of perfume and sweet aromas. In Egyptian medicine he was called upon for healing aromas to cure disease.

Nehebkau (Nehebu-Kau) – Protector god who joined the soul (ka) to the body at birth and united the ka with the ba (winged aspect of the soul) after death. Depicted as a serpent.

Nehmetawy – Protector goddess, the consort of the god of wisdom and writing, Thoth.

Neith – War goddess, creator goddess, mother goddess, and funerary goddess. The most important goddess of Lower Egypt in early history. Called “Grandmother of the Gods” or “Mother of the Gods”. She was thought to have invented birth and was closely associated with living and growing things. Mediator of the gods’ disputes.

Nekhbet – Protector goddess. Depicted as a vulture.

Nekheny – Protector god. Depicted as a falcon.

Neper – God of the grains.

Nephthys – Funerary goddess. Depicted as a woman with a house on her head. Considered the dark goddess balancing the light of Isis.

Nu (Nun) and Naunet – The personification of the primordial chaos from which the world arose.

Nut – Primordial sky goddess who personified the canopy of the heavens.

Egyptian god Osiris

O

Ogdoad – Eight gods representing primordial elements of creation: Nu and Naunet (water); Heh and Hauhet (infinity); Kek and Kauket (darkness); Amun and Amaunet (hiddenness, obscurity).

Onuris (Anhur) – God of war and hunting.

Osiris – Lord and judge of the dead. One of the most popular and enduring gods of Egypt. Depicted as a mummy with green or black skin. Husband of Isis.

Osiris-Apis – Apis’ bull.

P

Pakhet – Hunting goddess. Depicted as a lioness.

Panebtawy – Child god. Depicted as a young boy with his finger to his lips.

Pataikos – Minor amuletic deities who represented the power Ptah. Depicted as dwarf-gods.

Peak – Personification of the highest peak of the cliffs which overshadowed the Valley of the Kings.

Peteese and Pihor – Brothers known as “the sons of Kuper” who drowned in the Nile River near Dendur. They were deified for their association with Osiris, stemming from their death in the river.

Ptah – The great god of Memphis, creator of the world, lord of truth. Depicted as a mummified man wearing a skull cap holding a scepter.

Egyptian god PtahPtah-hotep – Author of Wisdom Texts. Deified after his death.

Ptah-Sokar-Osiris – Hybrid god associated with creation, death, and rebirth.

Q

Qebhet – See Kabechet

Qebehsenuef – Protector god, one of the Four Sons of Horus who protected the canopic jar of the intestines. Depicted as a hawk.

Qudshu (Qadesh) – Goddess of love. Depicted as a slim naked woman holding the symbols of eroticism and fertility; lotus blossoms in her right hand and snakes or papyrus stems in her left.

R

Ra (Atum or Re) – Great sun god of Heliopolis. Tpyramids of Giza are associated with Ra.

Raettawy (Raet or Raet-Tawy) – Female aspect of Ra. Depicted with the uraeus on her head holding the solar disk.

Ra-Harakhte (Raharakty or Ra-Harakhty) – Personification of the sun at the two horizons, sunrise and sunset. Depicted as a man with a hawk’s head wearing a solar disk crown.

Renpet – Personification of the year or passing of time.

Renenutet (Renenet or Ernutet) – Goddess of nursing and motherhood. Depicted as a cobra or a rearing cobra with the head of a woman.

Reret – Protector deity. Protectress of the sun barge as it made its way through the underworld.

Reshep – War god . Consort of the goddess of sexual pleasure and sacred ecstasy Qudshu (Qadesh). Depicted as a strong warrior holding a raised war club and wearing a skirt and long Mesopotamian-styled beard.

Ruty – Twin lion gods who represented the eastern and western horizons.

S

Sah – Personification of the constellation Orion. Depicted as a man holding the ankh and sceptre standing in a boat surrounded by stars.

Satis (Satet or Satit) – Goddess of the southern border of Egypt with Nubia. Depicted as a woman wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt with antelope horns.

Sebiumeker – Guardian god of procreation and fertility.

Sed – Protector of kingship and the king.

Sefkhet-Abwy (Safekh-Aubi) – See Seshat.

Sekhmet – Goddess of destruction and healing. Depicted as a woman with the head of a lion.

Ankh symbolSepa – Protector god from snakebites. Depicted in the form of a centipede with the head of a donkey or horns.

Serapis – Hybrid god created by Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt (r. 323-283 BCE), a blend of Osiris and Apis but his character and attributes were a blending of these two Egyptian deities with the Greek gods Zeus, Helios, Dionysius, Hades, and Asklepius.

Seret – Protective goddess .

Serket (Selket, Serqet or Serkis) – Protective and funerary goddess. Depicted as a woman with a scorpion on her head and arms outstretched in a protective pose.

Seshat (Sefkhet-Abwy or Safekh-Aubi) – Goddess of writing, books, notations, and measurements. Depicted as a woman wearing a leopard skin holding a a writing implement in her right hand and the notched palm stalk in her left.

Set (Seth) – God of war, chaos, storms, and pestilence. Depicted as a red beast with cloven hooves and a forked tale.

Shay (Shai) – Personification of fate.

Shed – Protective god who guarded against personal harm from wild animals or mortal enemies. Depicted as a young man with shaved head carrying a quiver of arrows.

Shentayet – Protective goddess.

Shepet – Protective goddess. An aspect of Reret or Taweret.

Shesmetet – Protective leonine goddess known as “Lady of Punt”. Depicted as a woman with the head of a lion.

Shezmu – God of wine and perfume.

Shu – God of the air.

Sia – Personification of perception and thoughtfulness. Depicted as a man standing at the right side of Ptah.

Sky Bull – Presided over the heavens and the afterlife as a protector, also known as “Bull of the West”.

Sobek – Protective deity. God of water and medicine. Depicted as a man with a crocodile’s head.

Sokar (Seker) – Protective falcon god of Memphis. Depicted as a funerary mound surrounded by falcon heads.

Sons of Horus – See Four Sons of Horus.

Sopdu (Soped or Sopedu) – Protective god who guarded over the outposts and soldiers on the eastern border of Egypt. Depicted as a falcon with a flail over the right wing.

Sothis – Personification of the star Sirius. Depicted as a woman with feathers with a five-pointed star above her..

Souls of Nekhen and Pe – Protective spirits who served the king in life and death. Depicted as men with falcon heads.

Star Deities – Gods and goddesses associated with the planets and stars.

Sutekh – Semitic name for the god Set (Seth).

T

Ta-Bitjet – Protective goddess that guards against poisonous bites and stings..

Tasenetnofret – Protective goddess.

Tatenen – Personification of the primordial mound at creation and the land of Egypt..

Taweret (Tauret) – Protective goddess of childbirth and fertility. Depicted as a female hippopotamus.

Tayet (Tait) – Goddess of weaving.

Tefnut – Goddess of moisture. Depicted as a woman seated with a lion’s head.

Tenenit (Tenenet or Tjenenet) – Goddess of beer, brewing and childbirth.

Tetrads – Personification of completeness or the four cardinal points of the compass.

Thoth – God of writing and wisdom, truth and integrity. Depicted as a man with the head of an ibis holding a writing implement.

Tjenenyet – Protective goddess.

Tree Goddesses – Goddesses that were associated with trees, most notably Isis, Hathor, and Nut.

Triads – Grouping of three deities, usually a father-god, mother-god, and child-god.

Tutu – Protective god. Depicted as a striding lion with the head of a man, large wings, and a snake for a tail.

U

Uat-Ur – Personification of the Mediterranean Sea. See Wadj-Wer.

Uajyt (Wadjet or Uto) – Protective goddess of Lower Egypt. Depicted as a serpent with a woman’s head.

Unut (Wenet or Wenut) – Protective goddess. Depicted as a woman with a rabbit’s head.

W

Wadjet – Protective goddess against demons, bad omens, and ghosts. Depicted as a rearing cobra.

Wadj-Wer (Uat-Ur) – Personification of the Mediterranean Sea.

Waset (Wosret) – Protective goddess. Depicted as a woman holding the Was sceptre and ankh and a staff adorned with ribbons.

Weneg – Protective god who held up the sky and maintained order between the heavens and the earth.

Wenenu – Protective god. Depicted as a rabbitt-headed man.

Wepset – Protective goddess. Depicted as a woman wearing the uraeus with horns and the sun disk overhead.

Wepwawet (Wepiu or Wepuaut) – God that opens ways for battles, the afterlife, and birth. Depicted as a jackal wearing a scarf with a falcon in front of him.

Werethekau (Weret-Hekau) – Protective goddess.

Y

Yah – See Iah.

Yam – God of the sea.

Z

Zenenet – Another name for Isis.

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