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Ezekiel digs hole in wall

God spoke to Ezekiel saying,

“Son of man, you are living among a rebellious people. They have eyes to see but do not see and ears to hear but do not hear. Therefore, pack your belongings for exile and in the daytime, as they watch, set out and go from where you are to another place. Perhaps they will understand even though they are a rebellious people.

“During the daytime, while they watch, bring out your belongings packed for exile. Then in the evening, while they are watching, go out like those who go into exile. While they watch, dig through the wall and take your belongings out through it, put them on your shoulder and carry them out at dusk. Cover your face so that you cannot see the land. I have made you a sign to the Israelites.”

Ezekiel did as he was told. He packed his things and, in the evening, dug through the wall with his hands. He took his belongings out at dusk and carried them on his shoulders as the people watched.

Ezekiel digs hole in wallIn the morning, God said to Ezekiel, “Son of Man, did not the Israelites, the rebellious people, ask what you were doing?”

“Tell them, ‘This prophecy concerns the prince in Jerusalem and all the Israelites who are there.’ Tell them, ‘I am a sign to you.’ As I have done, so it will be done to them. They will go into exile as captives.”

“The prince among them will put his things on his shoulder at dusk and leave and a hole will be dug in the wall for him to go through. He will cover his face so he cannot see the land. I will spread my net for him and he will be caught in my snare. I will bring him to Babylonia, the land of the Chaldeans, but he will not see it and there he will die. I will scatter to the winds all those around him – his staff and all his troops – and I will pursue them with drawn sword.”

“They will know that I am the Lord when I disperse them among the nations and scatter them through the countries. But I will spare a few of them from the sword, famine, and plague, so that in the nations where they go, they may acknowledge all their detestable practices. Then they will know that I am the Lord.”

God told Ezekiel,

“Tremble as you eat and shudder in fear as you drink. Say to the people, ‘This is what the Lord says about those living in Jerusalem and in the land of Israel: They will eat their food in anxiety and drink their water in despair, for their land will be stripped of everything in it because of the violence of all who live there. The inhabited towns will be laid to waste and the land will be desolate. Then you will know that I am the Lord.”

God told Ezekiel,

“Son of man, what is this proverb you have in the land of Israel, ‘The days go by and every vision comes to nothing?’ Say to them, ‘I am going to put an end to this proverb, and they will no longer quote it in Israel.’ Tell them, ‘The days are near when every vision will be fulfilled. There will be no more false visions or flattering divinations among the people of Israel. It will be fulfilled without delay. I will fulfill what I say.’

God told Ezekiel,

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“Son of man, the Israelites are saying, ‘The vision he sees is for many years from now.’ Tell them, ‘This is what God says: None of my words will be delayed any longer. What I say will be fulfilled.'”

What the story means to us today

Obstinance and impatience rule the Israelites behavior

God again refers to the Israelites as a “rebellious house”. The Israelites are blind to God’s word, an attitude that has plagued Israel throughout much of their history. The exiles still refuse to heed Ezekiel’s warnings.

Most people do not enjoy being controlled. Sometimes we may even feel we are controlled by God. But God doesn’t want to control us – because of his love for us, he wants to guide us down a path that leads to glory.

People are inherently impatient too. The Israelites tire of Ezekiel’s visions saying, “The days keep passing by and every vision fails”. But God says their proverb will soon change to “The days draw near as well as the fulfillment of every vision”.

God knows what lays ahead and sees all the options available to us – and he knows the outcome of each available option. All we must do is listen and accept the assistance God offers – then follow his will.

Additional thoughts and considerations

Ezekiel acts out Zedekiah’s attempted escape

God tells Ezekiel to again act out a dramatization of the events to come. Ezekiel is to pack his belongings and leave at night, as an exile would do if banished from his homeland. He then digs through a hole in the wall of his house, as would a person escaping entrapment. Finally, he covers his face, symbolizing the blindness of a person being led into the unknown. Still, the people of Israel do not understand Ezekiel’s portrayal of events and ask, “What are you doing?”

As we will soon see, Ezekiel’s actions mimic the attempted escape of Zedekiah (2 Kings 25:4) which preceded Babylonia’s destruction of Jerusalem.

Who was Zedekiah?

The slaying of Zedekiah's sonsAlthough not mentioned by name in Ezekiel, it is clear the “prince” god refers to is Zedekiah. Zedekiah’s fate is told in 2 Kings 25:3. His role in Israel’s history is significant. Zedekiah was the last king of Judah before the destruction of the kingdom by Babylon.

After the Egyptians were defeated by the Babylonians at the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II then besieged Jerusalem. He sieged the city again in 598 BC. It was during this siege that King Jehoiakim died. His son, Jeconiah took his place. Jerusalem fell within three months of Jeconiah’s reign as king.

Nebuchadnezzar II (the king of Babylon) deposed Jeconiah and installed Zedekiah (Jeconiah’s uncle) as king of Judah. The prophet Jeremiah was his counselor. Zedekiah reigned for more than a decade until Nebuchadnezzar began yet another siege of Jerusalem in December 589 BC. The siege lasted 2 12/ years.

The bible tells us that during the siege, “every worst woe befell the city”. Israel was devastated and Zedekiah was captured while attempting to escape. His sons were put to death before his eyes, his own eyes were put out, and he was carried captive to Babylon where he remained a prisoner until he died.

After the capture of Zedekiah, Nebuzaradan was sent to Jerusalem to destroy it. The city was plundered and razed to the ground. Solomon’s Temple was destroyed.

The events are documented in the Bible and in the Babylonian Chronicles. It was a significant turning points in Israel’s history. That God would foreworn the people the calamity was imminent should come as no surprise.

Ezekiel explains his drama to the people

God tells Ezekiel to explain the drama to the people, the meaning of the symbolizations that will ultimately take place in 586 BC. The Israelites will go as captives, their hope of departing Babylonia is dashed. God explains that the “prince among them”, Zedekiah, will escape in the night and flee toward Jordan. God, using Nebuchadnezzar’s army, will catch Zedekiah like an animal in a snare. Zedekiah’s soldiers will be slaughtered, his sons killed, and he will be blinded as punishment. As God explained to Ezekiel, Zedekiah will never see the land of Judah and will die in Babylonia as a prisoner.

Ezekiel acts out Israel’s judgement

God tells Ezekiel to “tremble as he eats and shudder in fear as he drinks his water”. The Israelites will experience fear, anxiety, and horror as the cities of Judah are destroyed. Israel does not believe Ezekiel’s prophecies because his previous judgements have yet to come true. They believe good times lie ahead and that God’s judgement over them is always in reserve. But God cares too much for Israel. Since they will not make the corrections themselves, they must be punished in order to correct their behavior.

The science and history behind the story

Assyrian relief showing prisoners carrying bags over shoulders“Pack your bags for exile”

God tells Ezekiel, “pack your bags for exile.” Ancient Assyrian reliefs depict the lines of captured prisoners carrying large bags on their shoulders, just as God instructed Ezekiel to act out. The Jewish Talmud says the baggage they carried contained a sleeping blanket, a lamp, and eating utensils.

Bible Text

NIV

12 The word of the LORD came to me: 2 “Son of man, you are living among a rebellious people. They have eyes to see but do not see and ears to hear but do not hear, for they are a rebellious people.

3 “Therefore, son of man, pack your belongings for exile and in the daytime, as they watch, set out and go from where you are to another place. Perhaps they will understand, though they are a rebellious people. 4 During the daytime, while they watch, bring out your belongings packed for exile. Then in the evening, while they are watching, go out like those who go into exile. 5 While they watch, dig through the wall and take your belongings out through it. 6 Put them on your shoulder as they are watching and carry them out at dusk. Cover your face so that you cannot see the land, for I have made you a sign to the Israelites.”

7 So I did as I was commanded. During the day I brought out my things packed for exile. Then in the evening I dug through the wall with my hands. I took my belongings out at dusk, carrying them on my shoulders while they watched.

8 In the morning the word of the LORD came to me: 9 “Son of man, did not the Israelites, that rebellious people, ask you, ‘What are you doing?’

10 “Say to them, ‘This is what the Sovereign LORD says: This prophecy concerns the prince in Jerusalem and all the Israelites who are there.’ 11 Say to them, ‘I am a sign to you.’

“As I have done, so it will be done to them. They will go into exile as captives.

12 “The prince among them will put his things on his shoulder at dusk and leave, and a hole will be dug in the wall for him to go through. He will cover his face so that he cannot see the land. 13 I will spread my net for him, and he will be caught in my snare; I will bring him to Babylonia, the land of the Chaldeans, but he will not see it, and there he will die. 14 I will scatter to the winds all those around him—his staff and all his troops—and I will pursue them with drawn sword.

15 “They will know that I am the LORD, when I disperse them among the nations and scatter them through the countries. 16 But I will spare a few of them from the sword, famine and plague, so that in the nations where they go they may acknowledge all their detestable practices. Then they will know that I am the LORD.”

17 The word of the LORD came to me: 18 “Son of man, tremble as you eat your food, and shudder in fear as you drink your water. 19 Say to the people of the land: ‘This is what the Sovereign LORD says about those living in Jerusalem and in the land of Israel: They will eat their food in anxiety and drink their water in despair, for their land will be stripped of everything in it because of the violence of all who live there. 20 The inhabited towns will be laid waste and the land will be desolate. Then you will know that I am the LORD.’ ”

21 The word of the LORD came to me: 22 “Son of man, what is this proverb you have in the land of Israel: ‘The days go by and every vision comes to nothing’? 23 Say to them, ‘This is what the Sovereign LORD says: I am going to put an end to this proverb, and they will no longer quote it in Israel.’ Say to them, ‘The days are near when every vision will be fulfilled. 24 For there will be no more false visions or flattering divinations among the people of Israel. 25 But I the LORD will speak what I will, and it shall be fulfilled without delay. For in your days, you rebellious people, I will fulfill whatever I say, declares the Sovereign LORD.’ ”

26 The word of the LORD came to me: 27 “Son of man, the Israelites are saying, ‘The vision he sees is for many years from now, and he prophesies about the distant future.’

28 “Therefore say to them, ‘This is what the Sovereign LORD says: None of my words will be delayed any longer; whatever I say will be fulfilled, declares the Sovereign LORD.’ ”

The New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011. Print.

Zedekiah from Guillaume Rouillé's Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum, 1553The NET Bible

The word of the LORD came to me: 12:2 “Son of man, you are living in the midst of a rebellious house. They have eyes to see, but do not see, and ears to hear, but do not hear, because they are a rebellious house.

12:3 “Therefore, son of man, pack up your belongings as if for exile. During the day, while they are watching, pretend to go into exile. Go from where you live to another place. Perhaps they will understand, although they are a rebellious house. 12:4 Bring out your belongings packed for exile during the day while they are watching. And go out at evening, while they are watching, as if for exile. 12:5 While they are watching, dig a hole in the wall and carry your belongings out through it. 12:6 While they are watching, raise your baggage onto your shoulder and carry it out in the dark. You must cover your face so that you cannot see the ground because I have made you an object lesson to the house of Israel.”

12:7 So I did just as I was commanded. I carried out my belongings packed for exile during the day, and at evening I dug myself a hole through the wall with my hands. I went out in the darkness, carrying my baggage on my shoulder while they watched.

12:8 The word of the LORD came to me in the morning: 12:9 “Son of man, has not the house of Israel, that rebellious house, said to you, ‘What are you doing?’ 12:10 Say to them, ‘This is what the sovereign LORD says: The prince will raise this burden in Jerusalem, and all the house of Israel within it.’ 12:11 Say, ‘I am an object lesson for you. Just as I have done, it will be done to them; they will go into exile and captivity.’

12:12 “The prince who is among them will raise his belongings onto his shoulder in darkness, and will go out. He will dig a hole in the wall to leave through. He will cover his face so that he cannot see the land with his eyes. 12:13 But I will throw my net over him, and he will be caught in my snare. I will bring him to Babylon, the land of the Chaldeans (but he will not see it), and there he will die. 12:14 All his retinue—his attendants and his troops—I will scatter to every wind; I will unleash a sword behind them.

12:15 “Then they will know that I am the LORD when I disperse them among the nations and scatter them among foreign countries. 12:16 But I will let a small number of them survive the sword, famine, and pestilence, so that they can confess all their abominable practices to the nations where they go. Then they will know that I am the LORD.”

12:17 The word of the LORD came to me: 12:18 “Son of man, eat your bread with trembling, and drink your water with anxious shaking. 12:19 Then say to the people of the land, ‘This is what the sovereign LORD says about the inhabitants of Jerusalem and of the land of Israel: They will eat their bread with anxiety and drink their water in fright, for their land will be stripped bare of all it contains because of the violence of all who live in it. 12:20 The inhabited towns will be left in ruins and the land will be devastated. Then you will know that I am the LORD.’ ”

12:21 The word of the LORD came to me: 12:22 “Son of man, what is this proverb you have in the land of Israel, ‘The days pass slowly, and every vision fails’? 12:23 Therefore tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign LORD says: I hereby end this proverb; they will not recite it in Israel any longer.’ But say to them, ‘The days are at hand when every vision will be fulfilled. 12:24 For there will no longer be any false visions or flattering omens amidst the house of Israel. 12:25 For I, the LORD, will speak. Whatever word I speak will be accomplished. It will not be delayed any longer. Indeed in your days, O rebellious house, I will speak the word and accomplish it, declares the sovereign LORD.’ ”

12:26 The word of the LORD came to me: 12:27 “Take note, son of man, the house of Israel is saying, ‘The vision that he sees is for distant days; he is prophesying about the far future.’ 12:28 Therefore say to them, ‘This is what the sovereign LORD says: None of my words will be delayed any longer! The word I speak will come to pass, declares the sovereign LORD.’ ”

Biblical Studies Press. The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press, 2006. Print.

New King James Version

Now the word of the LORD came to me, saying: 2 “Son of man, you dwell in the midst of a rebellious house, which has eyes to see but does not see, and ears to hear but does not hear; for they are a rebellious house.

3 “Therefore, son of man, prepare your belongings for captivity, and go into captivity by day in their sight. You shall go from your place into captivity to another place in their sight. It may be that they will consider, though they are a rebellious house. 4 By day you shall bring out your belongings in their sight, as though going into captivity; and at evening you shall go in their sight, like those who go into captivity. 5 Dig through the wall in their sight, and carry your belongings out through it. 6 In their sight you shall bear them on your shoulders and carry them out at twilight; you shall cover your face, so that you cannot see the ground, for I have made you a sign to the house of Israel.”

7 So I did as I was commanded. I brought out my belongings by day, as though going into captivity, and at evening I dug through the wall with my hand. I brought them out at twilight, and I bore them on my shoulder in their sight.

8 And in the morning the word of the LORD came to me, saying, 9 “Son of man, has not the house of Israel, the rebellious house, said to you, ‘What are you doing?’ 10 Say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD: “This burden concerns the prince in Jerusalem and all the house of Israel who are among them.” ’ 11 Say, ‘I am a sign to you. As I have done, so shall it be done to them; they shall be carried away into captivity.’ 12 And the prince who is among them shall bear his belongings on his shoulder at twilight and go out. They shall dig through the wall to carry them out through it. He shall cover his face, so that he cannot see the ground with his eyes. 13 I will also spread My net over him, and he shall be caught in My snare. I will bring him to Babylon, to the land of the Chaldeans; yet he shall not see it, though he shall die there. 14 I will scatter to every wind all who are around him to help him, and all his troops; and I will draw out the sword after them.

15 “Then they shall know that I am the LORD, when I scatter them among the nations and disperse them throughout the countries. 16 But I will spare a few of their men from the sword, from famine, and from pestilence, that they may declare all their abominations among the Gentiles wherever they go. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.”

17 Moreover the word of the LORD came to me, saying, 18 “Son of man, eat your bread with quaking, and drink your water with trembling and anxiety. 19 And say to the people of the land, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the land of Israel: “They shall eat their bread with anxiety, and drink their water with dread, so that her land may be emptied of all who are in it, because of the violence of all those who dwell in it. 20 Then the cities that are inhabited shall be laid waste, and the land shall become desolate; and you shall know that I am the LORD.” ’ ”

21 And the word of the LORD came to me, saying, 22 “Son of man, what is this proverb that you people have about the land of Israel, which says, ‘The days are prolonged, and every vision fails’? 23 Tell them therefore, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD: “I will lay this proverb to rest, and they shall no more use it as a proverb in Israel.” But say to them, “The days are at hand, and the fulfillment of every vision. 24 For no more shall there be any false vision or flattering divination within the house of Israel. 25 For I am the LORD. I speak, and the word which I speak will come to pass; it will no more be postponed; for in your days, O rebellious house, I will say the word and perform it,” says the Lord GOD.’ ”

26 Again the word of the LORD came to me, saying, 27 “Son of man, look, the house of Israel is saying, ‘The vision that he sees is for many days from now, and he prophesies of times far off.’ 28 Therefore say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord GOD: “None of My words will be postponed any more, but the word which I speak will be done,” says the Lord GOD.’ ”

The New King James Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1982. Print.

The Message

GOD’s Message came to me: “Son of man, you’re living with a bunch of rebellious people. They have eyes but don’t see a thing, they have ears but don’t hear a thing. They’re rebels all. So, son of man, pack up your exile duffel bags. Leave in broad daylight with everyone watching and go off, as if into exile. Maybe then they’ll understand what’s going on, rebels though they are. You’ll take up your baggage while they watch, a bundle of the bare necessities of someone going into exile, and toward evening leave, just like a person going off into exile. As they watch, dig through the wall of the house and carry your bundle through it. In full sight of the people, put the bundle on your shoulder and walk out into the night. Cover your face so you won’t have to look at what you’ll never see again. I’m using you as a sign for the family of Israel.”

7 I did exactly as he commanded me. I got my stuff together and brought it out in the street where everyone could see me, bundled it up the way someone being taken off into exile would, and then, as the sun went down, made a hole in the wall of the house with my hands. As it grew dark and as they watched, I left, throwing my bundle across my shoulders.

8–10 The next morning GOD spoke to me: “Son of man, when anyone in Israel, that bunch of rebels, asks you, ‘What are you doing?’ Tell them, ‘GOD, the Master, says that this Message especially concerns the prince in Jerusalem—Zedekiah—but includes all the people of Israel.’

11 “Also tell them, ‘I am drawing a picture for you. As I am now doing, it will be done to all the people of Israel. They will go into exile as captives.’

12–15 “The prince will put his bundle on his shoulders in the dark and leave. He’ll dig through the wall of the house, covering his face so he won’t have to look at the land he’ll never see again. But I’ll make sure he gets caught and is taken to Babylon. Blinded, he’ll never see that land in which he’ll die. I’ll scatter to the four winds those who helped him escape, along with his troops, and many will die in battle. They’ll realize that I am GOD when I scatter them among foreign countries.

16 “I’ll permit a few of them to escape the killing, starvation, and deadly sickness so that they can confess among the foreign countries all the disgusting obscenities they’ve been involved in. They will realize that I am GOD.”

17–20 GOD’s Message came to me: “Son of man, eat your meals shaking in your boots, drink your water trembling with fear. Tell the people of this land, everyone living in Jerusalem and Israel, GOD’s Message: ‘You’ll eat your meals shaking in your boots and drink your water in terror because your land is going to be stripped bare as punishment for the brutality rampant in it. All the cities and villages will be emptied out and the fields destroyed. Then you’ll realize that I am GOD.’ ”

21–22 GOD’s Message came to me: “Son of man, what’s this proverb making the rounds in the land of Israel that says, ‘Everything goes on the same as ever; all the prophetic warnings are false alarms’?

23–25 “Tell them, ‘GOD, the Master, says, This proverb’s going to have a short life!’

“Tell them, ‘Time’s about up. Every warning is about to come true. False alarms and easygoing preaching are a thing of the past in the life of Israel. I, GOD, am doing the speaking. What I say happens. None of what I say is on hold. What I say, I’ll do—and soon, you rebels!’ Decree of GOD the Master.”

26–28 GOD’s Message came to me: “Son of man, do you hear what Israel is saying: that the alarm the prophet raises is for a long time off, that he’s preaching about the far-off future? Well, tell them, ‘GOD, the Master, says, “Nothing of what I say is on hold. What I say happens.” ’ Decree of GOD, the Master.”

Peterson, Eugene H. The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2005. Print.

King James Version

12 The word of the LORD also came unto me, saying, 2 Son of man, thou dwellest in the midst of a rebellious house, which have eyes to see, and see not; they have ears to hear, and hear not: for they are a rebellious house. 3 Therefore, thou son of man, prepare thee stuff for removing, and remove by day in their sight; and thou shalt remove from thy place to another place in their sight: it may be they will consider, though they be a rebellious house. 4 Then shalt thou bring forth thy stuff by day in their sight, as stuff for removing: and thou shalt go forth at even in their sight, as they that go forth into captivity. 5 Dig thou through the wall in their sight, and carry out thereby. 6 In their sight shalt thou bear it upon thy shoulders, and carry it forth in the twilight: thou shalt cover thy face, that thou see not the ground: for I have set thee for a sign unto the house of Israel. 7 And I did so as I was commanded: I brought forth my stuff by day, as stuff for captivity, and in the even I digged through the wall with mine hand; I brought it forth in the twilight, and I bare it upon my shoulder in their sight.

8 And in the morning came the word of the LORD unto me, saying, 9 Son of man, hath not the house of Israel, the rebellious house, said unto thee, What doest thou? 10 Say thou unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; This burden concerneth the prince in Jerusalem, and all the house of Israel that are among them. 11 Say, I am your sign: like as I have done, so shall it be done unto them: they shall remove and go into captivity. 12 And the prince that is among them shall bear upon his shoulder in the twilight, and shall go forth: they shall dig through the wall to carry out thereby: he shall cover his face, that he see not the ground with his eyes. 13 My net also will I spread upon him, and he shall be taken in my snare: and I will bring him to Babylon to the land of the Chaldeans; yet shall he not see it, though he shall die there. 14 And I will scatter toward every wind all that are about him to help him, and all his bands; and I will draw out the sword after them. 15 And they shall know that I am the LORD, when I shall scatter them among the nations, and disperse them in the countries. 16 But I will leave a few men of them from the sword, from the famine, and from the pestilence; that they may declare all their abominations among the heathen whither they come; and they shall know that I am the LORD.

17 Moreover the word of the LORD came to me, saying, 18 Son of man, eat thy bread with quaking, and drink thy water with trembling and with carefulness; 19 And say unto the people of the land, Thus saith the Lord GOD of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and of the land of Israel; They shall eat their bread with carefulness, and drink their water with astonishment, that her land may be desolate from all that is therein, because of the violence of all them that dwell therein. 20 And the cities that are inhabited shall be laid waste, and the land shall be desolate; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.

21 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, 22 Son of man, what is that proverb that ye have in the land of Israel, saying, The days are prolonged, and every vision faileth? 23 Tell them therefore, Thus saith the Lord GOD; I will make this proverb to cease, and they shall no more use it as a proverb in Israel; but say unto them, The days are at hand, and the effect of every vision. 24 For there shall be no more any vain vision nor flattering divination within the house of Israel. 25 For I am the LORD: I will speak, and the word that I shall speak shall come to pass; it shall be no more prolonged: for in your days, O rebellious house, will I say the word, and will perform it, saith the Lord GOD.

26 Again the word of the LORD came to me, saying, 27 Son of man, behold, they of the house of Israel say, The vision that he seeth is for many days to come, and he prophesieth of the times that are far off. 28 Therefore say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; There shall none of my words be prolonged any more, but the word which I have spoken shall be done, saith the Lord GOD.

The Holy Bible: King James Version. Electronic Edition of the 1900 Authorized Version. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2009. Print.

Sources: NIV, The Message, The NET Bible, King James Version, NET Bible Notes, Faithlife Study Bible, The Apologetics Study Bible, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Commentary, The Bible Reader’s Companion, Matthew Henry’s Commentary, Holman Concise Bible Commentary, The Bible Exposition Commentary, The Teacher’s Bible Commentary, The Teacher’s Commentary, The Bible Guide, Word Studies in the New Testament, Holman Bible Handbook, Calvin Commentaries, Wiersbe’s Expository Outlines, The New Manner and Customs of the Bible, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Bible Dictionary, Easton’s Bible Dictionary, Harper’s Bible Dictionary, Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, The Archaeological Encyclopedia, Biblical Archaeology Review, The New Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Analytical Lexicon, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database
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