Passover celebration - Artist unknown

God told Moses and Aaron:

“This month is to be the first month of your year. Tell all of Israel on the tenth day of this month, each is to take a lamb, one for each household. If a house is too small for a whole lamb, they must share with their neighbor. The animals you choose must be one-year-old males, without defect, and you may take them from the sheep or the goats.

Take care of them until the fourteenth day of the month when all members of the community of Israel must slaughter them at twilight. They are to take blood from the slaughter and put it on the sides and tops of the doorframes of their houses inside of which, they are to eat the lambs.

That night, they are to eat the meat roasted over the fire, along with bitter herbs, and bread made without yeast. Do not eat the meat raw nor boil it in water but rather, roast it over the fire with the head, legs, and internal organs intact. Whatever is left uneaten by morning should be burned.

Eat the meat with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. Eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover.

On that same night, I will pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn of both animals and people to bring judgement on all the gods of Egypt. I am the Lord. The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are. When I see the blood, I will pass over you.

Passover celebration - Artist unknownThis is a day you are to commemorate for the generations to come. You shall celebrate it as a festival to the Lord – a lasting ordinance.

For seven days you are to eat bread made without yeast. On the first day, remove the yeast from your houses for whoever eats anything with yeast in it from the first day through the seventh, must be cut off from Israel.

On the first day, hold a sacred assembly and another one on the seventh day. Do not work at all on these days except to prepare food for everyone to eat. Celebrate the Festival of Unleavened Bread because it was on this very day that I brought you out of Egypt. Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come.

In the first month, you are to eat bread made without yeast from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day. For seven days, no yeast is to be found in your houses. Anyone whether foreigner or native born, who eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off from the community of Israel. Eat nothing made with yeast. You must eat unleavened bread.

Then Moses summoned the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go at once and select the animals for your families and slaughter the Passover lamb. Take a bunch of hyssop and dip it into the blood in a basin and put some of the blood on the top and on both sides of your doorframe. None of you shall go out the door of your houses until morning. When the Lord goes through the land to strike down the Egyptians, he will see the blood on your doorframe and will pass over that doorway and he will not permit the destroyer to enter your houses and strike you down. Obey these instructions as a lasting ordinance for you and your descendants. When you enter the land that God will give you as he promised, observe this ceremony. And when your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to us?’, then tell them it is the Passover sacrifice to the Lord who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and spared our homes when he struck down the Egyptians.”

Then the people bowed down and worshiped. The Israelites did just as the Lord commanded them.

What the story means to us today

A sacrificial lamb spares God’s people from destruction – by the blood of the lamb, they are saved

Passover celebration - Artist unknownIn this section of Exodus, we see the beginning of the actual deliverance of the Hebrews from Egyptian bondage. The Egyptians chose to ignore God’s command to release them and now will pay the price for their obstinance. How steep will the price be? The Hebrew word God used for “destruction” in these verses is the same Hebrew word used to describe the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.

Before the destruction begins, God lays out steps Israelites must take to avoid being caught up in the onslaught. They are to sacrifice a lamb and mark the doorframes of their homes with its blood. By doing this, they will be protected and the Egyptians (and the rest of the world) will witness God’s power.

The ritual described in these verses bears an uncanny resemblance to the events surrounding Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross. God instructs the Israelites to take a lamb to slaughter. The lamb must be free of defects. And it must die at a young age. Compare these requirements to the crucifixion of Jesus which also took place during Passover week. Just as the blood from the sacrificial lamb spared the Israelites from God’s destruction, so does the blood Jesus shed save us from God’s judgement.

Additional thoughts and considerations

The Jewish Festival of Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread

The Passover and Feast of the Unleavened Bread described in these verses, became a central part of the holy calendar of Israel. According to instructions provided in Exodus, the steps the Israelites should observe include:

Advertisements

  • On the 10th day of the month, an unblemished lamb is taken from the flock.
  • On the 14th day, lamb is slaughtered at twilight.
  • The doorframes of the homes are marked with the lamb’s blood.
  • That same night, in haste, roasted meat from the lamb is eaten along with bitter herbs and bread made without yeast (unleavened bread).
  • Any meat left over in the morning must be burned.

These steps mark the beginning of Passover week or the Feast of the Unleavened Bread. Passover week is commemorated for seven days as follows:

On the first day, all yeast must be removed from the home. A sacred assembly is held. Then for seven days, no work is done and only unleavened bread is eaten. Finally, on the seventh and final day, another sacred assembly is held.

Today the modern-day version of Passover mimics the directions God provided in Exodus with the additional of a more formalized structure defined later by Jewish clerics.

The Christian guide to the Jewish Passover Seder celebration

Passover celebration - Artist unknownThe traditional Passover feast is called the Passover Seder. The tradition roughly follows the events outlined in the Bible. If you live in Israel, the Seder is held after nightfall on the first night of Passover week. If you live outside of Israel, the Seder is held on the second night of Passover.

The meal includes four cups of wine, vegetables dipped in saltwater, a flat cracker-like bread called matzah, and bitter herbs (typically horseradish plant) dipped in charoset (a paste made from nuts, pears, apples, and wine). The main meal usually includes soup and fish.

To begin, the home is setup and prepared for the Seder Meal. An elegant table is set up with candles scattered about the room and kosher dishware placed on the table. Each placing is set with two glasses – one for wine, and the other for water. A single wine glass is placed in the center of the table. This glass is a symbolic gesture for the prophet Elijah who is believed to be present during the meal.

The Seder plate is setup with foods that symbolize the story of Exodus. Placed on the plate are a hard-boiled egg, roasted shank bone, a vegetable (e.g. parsley), charoset mixture, and fresh horseradish. A small dish of saltwater is placed next to each plate. Three pieces of matzah are placed on a plate (stacked on top of each other), covered with a napkin, and set next to the Seder plate. A container of wine is placed on the table – enough for each guest to have four glasses of wine.

A copy of the Jewish prayer book, the Haggadah, is place on top of each plate. A basin of water and a towel are placed on the table for handwashing. Pillows are scattered about the area for guests to recline on.

There are fifteen steps during the meal called the Seder or “Order”. The steps are tightly choreographed and designed to includes tastes, smells, and sounds associated with the Jewish exodus from Egypt. It is through these steps that Jewish children learn the story of Exodus and its impact on the Jewish culture.

Step 1 – Kadesh

The celebration begins with Kadesh. Fill the glass with wine and stand while one person says “kiddush” and sanctifies the wine. Together, recite the kiddush which explains the holiday in detail. Now everyone drinks their first glass of wine while reclining on their left side. This symbolizes the ancient Hebrew practice of laying on one’s side while eating. Only free Egyptians had the luxury of reclining this way.

Step 2 – Urchatz (a ceremonial washing of hands)

The basin of water (or a two-handled cup) is used to wash the hands. First, pour water over the right hand. Pour enough so the entire hand is completely covered up to the wrist bone. Spread the fingers slightly and let the water flow between them. Repeat this two times. Then do the same for the left hand.

Now hold your hands chest high and dry them while reciting a blessing,

“Blessed are you, Lord our God, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments, and commanded us concerning the washing of our hands.”

Early photograph of Jewish family celebrating the Seder dinnerThe pouring of water over the hands represents wisdom pouring through the body. Hand washing also fulfills a Jewish requirement that dictates certain foods can only be eaten after the hands are purified.

Step 3 – Karpas

Karpas is the Hebrew word for “vegetables”. Begin by saying a blessing over the food. Then take a piece of vegetable, dip it into the saltwater, and eat it. This symbolizes the ancient nobility’s practice of eating an appetizer before the main meal.

Step 4 – Yachatz

Place the three pieces of matzah on your Seder Plate, one atop another. Take the middle piece of matzah and break it into two pieces. Take the larger of the two pieces in your hand. The smaller piece is left on the plate between the other two matzahs. This lesser piece represents “poor man’s bread”, a smaller piece of bread the poor would eat now while saving the larger piece for future emergencies.

Break the larger piece of matzah into five pieces and wrap them in a cloth. Hide the package somewhere in the house. In most Jewish homes, the package is hidden by the children for the adults to find later.

Step 5 – Maggid

Next, push the Seder Plate to the side and fill the glass with wine a second time. Allow children to ask questions. In particular, they should ask, “Mah nishtanah ha-lailah hazeh mikol ha-leilot?” or “Why is this night different from other nights?” They may ask other questions such as, “Why matzah?”, “Why do we dip in saltwater?”, “What are the bitter herbs for?”, or “Why do we recline on our left sides?”

The answers to their questions are presented through a reading from the Haggadah, the story of the Israelites exodus from Egypt. In this manner, the children learn the meaning of the Passover celebration and how it shaped their culture.

Finally, drink the second cup of wine.

Step 6 – Rachtzah

Next, the hands are washed again. As with the first washing, ensure enough water is poured to cover the entire hand. Do this twice, then repeat for the left hand. While the hands are still wet, say the blessing,

“Blessed be You, Lord our God, King of the World, who has sanctified us with His commandments, and commanded us concerning the washing of our hands.”

Advertisements

Then dry the hands thoroughly.

Step 7 – Motzie

Lift the three matzahs from the plate – the top one, the broken middle one, and the bottom one. Say the blessing,

“Blessed be You, Lord our God, who brings bread out of the earth.”

Step 8 – Matzah

Release the bottom matzah and let it fall back onto the plate. Say the blessing,

“Blessed be you, Lord our God, who has sanctified us with his commandments, and commanded us concerning the eating of matzah.”

Take the broken middle piece of matzah and the top piece and break them into chunks. Hand a piece of the middle matzah and a piece of the top matzah to each person at the table. Recline on the left side and eat the two pieces of matzah together (like a sandwich).

Step 9 – Maror

Take a large piece (or dab) of the bitter herb (horseradish) and dip it into the charoset. Shake the bitter herb to throw off much of the charoset. Say the blessing, “Blessed be You, Lord our God, who commanded us concerning eating bitter herbs.” Now eat the bitter herb.

The bitterness of the herb represents the bitterness the Jews felt during Egyptian captivity. The sweetness of the charoset offsets the bitterness of the herb and represents balance and peace.

Step 10 – Korech (the Hillel Sandwich)

Break two pieces from the bottom matzah (which should be the only piece that is still whole). Place a small bit of bitter herbs between the two pieces to make a sandwich. Dip the sandwich in the charoset. Say, “This is what Hillel did at the time that the Temple stood. He wrapped up some Pesach lamb, some matzah, and some bitter herbs and ate them together.” Lean to the left and eat the sandwich.

Step 11 – Shulchan Orech

Begin the dinner by eating the hard-boiled egg dipped in saltwater. Then finish eating the remainder of the dinner. The egg that is eaten first represents mourning for the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple.

Step 12 – Tzafun

After dinner, the adults look for and retrieve the matzah that was hidden by the children. Then recline to the left while eating the matzah. It is purposeful that the piece of matzah is eaten after dinner, with a full stomach.

Step 13 – Beirach

Pour the third cup of wine and say a blessing over the wine. Recline on the left side and drink the wine.

Step 14 – Hallel

Pour the fourth and final cup of wine. Pour another cup of wine and place it in the center of the table for the prophet Elijah. Send the children to the front door and recite the appropriate lines from your Haggadah. Instruct the children to open the door for Elijah. Say the Psalms of Praise from the Haggadah and a blessing over the wine. Recline on the left side and drink the last cup of wine.

Step 15 – Nirtzah

Say goodbye to the guests. The Passover celebration is complete.

The science and history behind the story

The impact of the Passover on modern-day calendars

The Passover was so significant, the month of Abib (the month when “the barley has headed”) was assigned the first month of the religious year. Later the Israelites began to use the Babylonian name for the month – Nisan. This matched our modern-day calendar for late March to early April.

Bible Text

NIV

12 The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt, 2 “This month is to be for you the first month, the first month of your year. 3 Tell the whole community of Israel that on the tenth day of this month each man is to take a lamb t for his family, one for each household. 4 If any household is too small for a whole lamb, they must share one with their nearest neighbor, having taken into account the number of people there are. You are to determine the amount of lamb needed in accordance with what each person will eat. 5 The animals you choose must be year-old males without defect, and you may take them from the sheep or the goats. 6 Take care of them until the fourteenth day of the month, when all the members of the community of Israel must slaughter them at twilight. 7 Then they are to take some of the blood and put it on the sides and tops of the doorframes of the houses where they eat the lambs. 8 That same night they are to eat the meat roasted over the fire, along with bitter herbs, and bread made without yeast. 9 Do not eat the meat raw or boiled in water, but roast it over a fire—with the head, legs and internal organs. 10 Do not leave any of it till morning; if some is left till morning, you must burn it. 11 This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand. Eat it in haste; it is the LORD’s Passover.

12 “On that same night I will pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn of both people and animals, and I will bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD. 13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, and when I see the blood, I will pass over you. No destructive plague will touch you when I strike Egypt.

14 “This is a day you are to commemorate; for the generations to come you shall celebrate it as a festival to the LORD—a lasting ordinance. 15 For seven days you are to eat bread made without yeast. On the first day remove the yeast from your houses, for whoever eats anything with yeast in it from the first day through the seventh must be cut off from Israel. 16 On the first day hold a sacred assembly, and another one on the seventh day. Do no work at all on these days, except to prepare food for everyone to eat; that is all you may do.

17 “Celebrate the Festival of Unleavened Bread, because it was on this very day that I brought your divisions out of Egypt. Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. 18 In the first month you are to eat bread made without yeast, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day. 19 For seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses. And anyone, whether foreigner or native-born, who eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off from the community of Israel. 20 Eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live, you must eat unleavened bread.”

21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go at once and select the animals for your families and slaughter the Passover lamb. 22 Take a bunch of hyssop, dip it into the blood in the basin and put some of the blood on the top and on both sides of the doorframe. None of you shall go out of the door of your house until morning. 23 When the LORD goes through the land to strike down the Egyptians, he will see the blood on the top and sides of the doorframe and will pass over that doorway, and he will not permit the destroyer to enter your houses and strike you down.

24 “Obey these instructions as a lasting ordinance for you and your descendants. 25 When you enter the land that the LORD will give you as he promised, observe this ceremony. 26 And when your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ 27 then tell them, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice to the LORD, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and spared our homes when he struck down the Egyptians.’ ” Then the people bowed down and worshiped. 28 The Israelites did just what the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron.

The New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011. Print.

The NET Bible

12:1  The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 12:2 “This month is to be your beginning of months; it will be your first month of the year. 12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel, ‘In the tenth day of this month they each must take a lamb for themselves according to their families—a lamb for each household. 12:4 If any household is too small for a lamb, the man and his next-door neighbor are to take a lamb according to the number of people—you will make your count for the lamb according to how much each one can eat. 12:5 Your lamb must be perfect, a male, one year old; you may take it from the sheep or from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it until the fourteenth day of this month, and then the whole community of Israel will kill it around sundown. 12:7 They will take some of the blood and put it on the two side posts and top of the doorframe of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8 They will eat the meat the same night; they will eat it roasted over the fire with bread made without yeast and with bitter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw or boiled in water, but roast it over the fire with its head, its legs, and its entrails. 12:10 You must leave nothing until morning, but you must burn with fire whatever remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is how you are to eat it—dressed to travel, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It is the LORD’S Passover.

12:12 I will pass through the land of Egypt in the same night, and I will attack all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. I am the LORD. 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, so that when I see the blood I will pass over you, and this plague will not fall on you to destroy you when I attack the land of Egypt.

12:14 This day will become a memorial for you, and you will celebrate it as a festival to the LORD—you will celebrate it perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 12:15 For seven days you must eat bread made without yeast. Surely on the first day you must put away yeast from your houses because anyone who eats bread made with yeast from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off from Israel.

12:16 On the first day there will be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind on them, only what every person will eat—that alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So you will keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because on this very day I brought your regiments out from the land of Egypt, and so you must keep this day perpetually as a lasting ordinance. 12:18 In the first month, from the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you will eat bread made without yeast until the twenty-first day of the month in the evening. 12:19 For seven days yeast must not be found in your houses, for whoever eats what is made with yeast—that person will be cut off from the community of Israel, whether a foreigner or one born in the land. 12:20 You will not eat anything made with yeast; in all the places where you live you must eat bread made without yeast.’ ”

12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and select for yourselves a lamb or young goat for your families, and kill the Passover animals. 12:22 Take a branch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and apply to the top of the doorframe and the two side posts some of the blood that is in the basin. Not one of you is to go out the door of his house until morning. 12:23 For the LORD will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the LORD will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer to enter your houses to strike you. 12:24 You must observe this event as an ordinance for you and for your children forever. 12:25 When you enter the land that the LORD will give to you, just as he said, you must observe this ceremony. 12:26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’—12:27 then you will say, ‘It is the sacrifice of the LORD’s Passover, when he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck Egypt and delivered our households.’ ” The people bowed down low to the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went away and did exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron.

Biblical Studies Press. The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press, 2006. Print.

New King James Version

12 Now the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, 2 “This month shall be your beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. 3 Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: ‘On the tenth of this month every man shall take for himself a lamb, according to the house of his father, a lamb for a household. 4 And if the household is too small for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next to his house take it according to the number of the persons; according to each man’s need you shall make your count for the lamb. 5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats. 6 Now you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month. Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at twilight. 7 And they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of the houses where they eat it. 8 Then they shall eat the flesh on that night; roasted in fire, with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. 9 Do not eat it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roasted in fire—its head with its legs and its entrails. 10 You shall let none of it remain until morning, and what remains of it until morning you shall burn with fire. 11 And thus you shall eat it: with a belt on your waist, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. So you shall eat it in haste. It is the LORD’s Passover.

12 ‘For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD. 13 Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.

14 ‘So this day shall be to you a memorial; and you shall keep it as a feast to the LORD throughout your generations. You shall keep it as a feast by an everlasting ordinance. 15 Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel. 16 On the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation for you. No manner of work shall be done on them; but that which everyone must eat—that only may be prepared by you. 17 So you shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this same day I will have brought your armies out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations as an everlasting ordinance. 18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at evening. 19 For seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses, since whoever eats what is leavened, that same person shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger or a native of the land. 20 You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened bread.’ ”

21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Pick out and take lambs for yourselves according to your families, and kill the Passover lamb. 22 And you shall take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until morning. 23 For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door and not allow the destroyer to come into your houses to strike you. 24 And you shall observe this thing as an ordinance for you and your sons forever. 25 It will come to pass when you come to the land which the LORD will give you, just as He promised, that you shall keep this service. 26 And it shall be, when your children say to you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’ 27 that you shall say, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice of the LORD, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when He struck the Egyptians and delivered our households.’ ” So the people bowed their heads and worshiped. 28 Then the children of Israel went away and did so; just as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.

The New King James Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1982. Print.

The Message

10 12 GOD said to Moses and Aaron while still in Egypt, “This month is to be the first month of the year for you. Address the whole community of Israel; tell them that on the tenth of this month each man is to take a lamb for his family, one lamb to a house. If the family is too small for a lamb, then share it with a close neighbor, depending on the number of persons involved. Be mindful of how much each person will eat. Your lamb must be a healthy male, one year old; you can select it from either the sheep or the goats. Keep it penned until the fourteenth day of this month and then slaughter it—the entire community of Israel will do this—at dusk. Then take some of the blood and smear it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the houses in which you will eat it. You are to eat the meat, roasted in the fire, that night, along with bread, made without yeast, and bitter herbs. Don’t eat any of it raw or boiled in water; make sure it’s roasted—the whole animal, head, legs, and innards. Don’t leave any of it until morning; if there are leftovers, burn them in the fire.

11 “And here is how you are to eat it: Be fully dressed with your sandals on and your stick in your hand. Eat in a hurry; it’s the Passover to GOD.

12–13 “I will go through the land of Egypt on this night and strike down every firstborn in the land of Egypt, whether human or animal, and bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt. I am GOD. The blood will serve as a sign on the houses where you live. When I see the blood I will pass over you—no disaster will touch you when I strike the land of Egypt.

14–16 “This will be a memorial day for you; you will celebrate it as a festival to GOD down through the generations, a fixed festival celebration to be observed always. You will eat unraised bread (matzoth) for seven days: On the first day get rid of all yeast from your houses—anyone who eats anything with yeast from the first day to the seventh day will be cut off from Israel. The first and the seventh days are set aside as holy; do no work on those days. Only what you have to do for meals; each person can do that.

17–20 “Keep the Festival of Unraised Bread! This marks the exact day I brought you out in force from the land of Egypt. Honor the day down through your generations, a fixed festival to be observed always. In the first month, beginning on the fourteenth day at evening until the twenty-first day at evening, you are to eat unraised bread. For those seven days not a trace of yeast is to be found in your houses. Anyone, whether a visitor or a native of the land, who eats anything raised shall be cut off from the community of Israel. Don’t eat anything raised. Only matzoth.”

21–23 Moses assembled all the elders of Israel. He said, “Select a lamb for your families and slaughter the Passover lamb. Take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the bowl of blood and smear it on the lintel and on the two doorposts. No one is to leave the house until morning. GOD will pass through to strike Egypt down. When he sees the blood on the lintel and the two doorposts, GOD will pass over the doorway; he won’t let the destroyer enter your house to strike you down with ruin.

24–27 “Keep this word. It’s the law for you and your children, forever. When you enter the land which GOD will give you as he promised, keep doing this. And when your children say to you, ‘Why are we doing this?’ tell them: ‘It’s the Passover-sacrifice to GOD who passed over the homes of the Israelites in Egypt when he hit Egypt with death but rescued us.’ ”

The people bowed and worshiped.

28 The Israelites then went and did what GOD had commanded Moses and Aaron. They did it all.

Peterson, Eugene H. The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2005. Print.

King James Version

12 And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, 2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. 3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house: 4 And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb. 5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats: 6 And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening. 7 And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it. 8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. 9 Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof. 10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire. 11 And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD’s passover. 12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD. 13 And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt. 14 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever. 15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. 16 And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you. 17 And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever. 18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. 19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land. 20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.

21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover. 22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning. 23 For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you. 24 And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever. 25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service. 26 And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service? 27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD’s passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped. 28 And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

The Holy Bible: King James Version. Electronic Edition of the 1900 Authorized Version. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2009. Print.

Advertisements

Sources: NIV, The Message, The NET Bible, King James Version, NET Bible Notes, Faithlife Study Bible, The Apologetics Study Bible, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Commentary, The Bible Reader’s Companion, Matthew Henry’s Commentary, Holman Concise Bible Commentary, The Bible Exposition Commentary, The Teacher’s Bible Commentary, The Teacher’s Commentary, The Bible Guide, Word Studies in the New Testament, Holman Bible Handbook, Calvin Commentaries, Wiersbe’s Expository Outlines, The New Manner and Customs of the Bible, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Bible Dictionary, Easton’s Bible Dictionary, Harper’s Bible Dictionary, Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, The Archaeological Encyclopedia, Biblical Archaeology Review, The New Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Analytical Lexicon, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database
Advertisements